German Democratic Republic
(abbreviated G.D.R.) is the official international name for the Deutsche Demokratische Republik (abbreviated D.D.R.) which most people know simply as East Germany.
It originated out of the former part of Germany which mainly had been occupied by Soviet forces after World War II (the former Soviet Zone) and existed from October 7th 1949 until October 3rd 1990. Since then, October 3rd is a bank holiday called Tag der Deutschen Eineit. The actual event most people have in mind though was the so-called fall of the Berlin wall, the opening of the border between East- and West-Germany on November 9th 1989.
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